Euthymius II's building activities bore a strong stamp of the anti - Muscovite policy of Novgorodian boyars. He built extensively, both within the precincts of the city - in the Archbishop's Court, in the St. Sophia Side, in the Market Side - and in the outlying territories - at Staraya Russa, Viazhishchi, Khutyn, and other localities. All kinds of buildings were constructed, secular, ecclesiastic, industrial as well as administrative. The chronicler tells us in the entry for 1433 y. that "in Novgorod the Great, Lord Archbishop Euthymius built in his court a stone edifice with thirty entrances; and it was put up by Novgorodian masters and by Germans from overseas". This shows how high the anti - Muscovite feeling ran among the Novgorodian boyars: even builders were invited from abroad.

The Palace of Facets, constructed in 1433 y. and later used for the sittings of the Council of Nobles, had a Gothic - style interior with a massive central pier supporting the groined vaults and with the cells separated by ribs, in a manner typical of Western European architecture.

One of the characteristic aspects of Euthymius II's building activities was the large - scale revival of old Novgorodian architectural features, going back to the twelfth century, and rich in associations with the greatness of Old Novgorod. In 1453 y., the Church of St. John the Baptist - in - Opoki, dating from 1127 - 1130 yy., was restored. In 1455 y., the Church of St. Elijah - in - Slavno was rebuilt "upon old foundations" of 1198 - 1202 yy. The builders gave it exaggeratedly archaic forms: for instance, instead of the three apses common in the twelfth century, or of one, customary in contemporary church architecture, St. Elijah's was provided with five, all of them with massive walls of unusual thickness and strength; in the builders' opinion, such was the best way to suggest the invincible might of Old Novgorod. In 1442 y., the Cathedral of Our Saviour of the Transfiguration at Staraya Russa was rebuilt "upon old foundations". Some other Novgorodian churches were also rebuilt and restored on twelfth - century foundations: of the Holy Women, in 1445 y.; of Our Lady in the Market Square, in 1458 y.

Interest in national antiquity was not, at that time, exclusively confined to Novgorod. But the past was viewed from different angles. At Vladimir, Tver, and other towns of north - eastern Rus, the study of history strengthened the feeling of national identity, and taught to draw from the cultural heritage of Kievan Rus, "Russia's own classical antiquity", the best that it had achieved. This spirit was equally strong in architecture, painting, literature, political life, and ecclesiastic activities; and was even reflected in the Kievan bylina cycle. Novgorod, by contrast, turned with a more limited aim to the past, as to a source which could furnish support for political opposition to Moscow, and for the preservation of the city - state's independence at all costs.